Parasites of Poultry
Chairman Department of Poultry Husbandry University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan -38000
Each year parasites and predators cost the poultry industry million of rupee’s. The word parasite is of Greek origin which means “situated besides”. Greek use this word for those peoples who ate beside or at the table of others. Scientist define parasites as “organisms which live on/or within the body of some other living organisms are called parasites and predators”. Host is an organism that harbor a parasite.
Diseases Caused by Parasites
2. Histomoniasis (Black Head)
Types of Parasites
They live within the host body. They are
It include NEMATODES or ROUND WORMS which are rounded in shape. TREMATODES or FLAT WORMS which are in the form of short long segmented tape.
They live on the surface of the body of birds, located especially inside of the thighs and under the wings. It include Arthropods, Lice, Mites and ticks.
Parasite Effect on Host
- They suck blood (ticks, mosquitoes, hookworms, lungworms).
- Produce various toxic substance. Cause an allergic reactions.
- Unexplained drop in egg production (99% drop in egg production sometime is caused by Round Worms).
- Retarded growth and anemia. Severely affected birds may die.
- Endoparasite cause mechanical obstruction to intestine and bile, trachea and bronchi (by lung worms).
- Due to round worms comb become dark pale.
Ectoparasites cause irritation, and act as carrier of diseases. i.e malaria by mosquitoes, spirochaetosis, TICK FEVER by Ticks in which spleen enlarged.
Prevention and Control
- Good sanitation is very important.
Thorough cleaning and disinfecting of the brooder and laying house before housing.
Avoid contamination of feed and water.
Hygienic disposal of the dropping.
- Eliminate intermediate host(s). Control earthworms and other insects.
- Rear young birds away from adult birds and intermediate host. Avoid rearing birds on free range.
- Insecticide sprays to keep down the insects load.
- Litter must be dry, free of damp areas. Avoid humidity. Provide adequate ventilation.
- All cracks and cervices must be removed/repaired.
- Avoid overcrowding.
- Deworming should be done after every month. Flow rate of ingesta/dewormer in the digestive tract of the bird is about 2 hr. If dewormer given to bird do not show positive results then the reason is that the medicine is not effective or proper dose is not given or proper deworming procedure is not adopted which is given below.
Special care is required during deworming.
- Give dewormer 2 hr. before sunsets.
- Light must be turned off.
- Remove wet litter at early in the morning if not possible remove the upper surface of the litter.
- Flushing with molasses solution should be done after 2 hr. of deworming.
- Use ANTIBIOTICS for avoiding secondary infection due to dewormer( because during the expulsion process of worms from the intestine they cause injuries in the intestine). Antibiotics are given following.
TM 200 (Tetracycline)
65 gm. per bag of feed for 5-7 days.
125 gm. Per bag of feed for 5-7 days.
ALBAC (Zinc Bacitracin)
100 gm. per bag of feed for 5-7 days.
Also use certain vitamins after deworming to reduce stress.
Treatment for Internal Parasites
or 1gm/kg of feed.
1gm/kg of feed
1gm/kg of feed.
1cc/5 Kg live wt.
or 1 cc/3 layers.
½ tablet for 1 bird
1/2 kg for 250 birds
(mix in 2 days feed of birds).
Treatment for External Parasites
For controlling ectoparasites use
(1:15) for young birds
(1:7) for large birds.
Use Neguvon for spray at the rate of 1 kg per 660 liter of water or 1 ounce per 5 gallon of water or 1-2 gram per 2 gallon of water for chick bath.
1 cc per liter for bath.
8 oz bottle per 50 gallon of water for house spray
Source: This article has previously been published in THE VETERINARY NEWS & VIEWS [WEEKLY] and on World Veterinary Association web site (Oct 21, 2003 – 10:08 PM).